Discovery CPC: Every Breath You Take

In this Discovery Clinical Pathological Conference (CPC), Drs. Alyssa Mohammed and Eva Amenta, Residents, Department of Medicine, discuss the case of a 27-year old male with a recent prolonged hospitalization due to pneumonia who presented with dyspnea and perioral cyanosis. Dr. Uma Ayyala, Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, serves as the faculty discussant. Dr. Ayyala reviews the pertinent negatives and positives of the given history and physical exam. She outlines important laboratory and radiological studies that would aid in evaluating the patient’s condition and narrowing down her differential diagnosis.

Dr. Varshana Gurusamy, Resident, Department of Radiology at Baylor College of Medicine, reviews the patient’s chest x-ray and CT scan and highlights the effects these assessments have on the patient’s overall clinical picture. Dr. Stephanie Holdener, Resident, Department of Pathology at Baylor College of Medicine, discusses the pathologic findings of the patient’s bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and reviews the process that helped her team arrive at the final diagnosis. Dr. Ayyala returns to the podium to summarize the case and the management of the patient’s condition.

CME Information

CME Credit Available

You may claim CME credit after watching this activity.

Needs Statement

Faculty and trainees within the Department of Medicine who are involved in the care of patients need to be regularly updated with the recent advances and guidelines in the fields of medicine and quality improvement to increase clinical knowledge. This Grand Rounds series also aims to provide learners with the appropriate skills to implement the advances and guidelines in clinical practice to enhance the quality of patient care and outcomes.


At the conclusion of this activity, the participant should be able to:

  • Identify a patient with acute respiratory failure based on a physical exam.
  • Develop a differential diagnosis for acute respiratory failure based on a patient’s history and a physical exam.
  • Utilize laboratory studies and imaging in the clinical and diagnostic reasoning for respiratory failure.
  • Identify current options for managing respiratory failure.

Target Audience

  • Physicians
  • Medical Students
  • Fellows
  • Residents
  • Nurses
  • Other Health Professionals

Accreditation/Credit Designation

Baylor College of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Baylor College of Medicine designates this enduring material activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™.  Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Program Director

Richard J. Hamill, M.D.
Department of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, Texas
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Term of Approval

August 1, 2019 through August 31, 2021. Original release date: August 1, 2019.

Disclosure Policy

The Office of Continuing Medical Education (OCME) makes every effort to develop CME activities that are scientifically based, accurate, current, and objectively presented. In accordance with the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education Standards for Commercial SupportSM, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) has implemented a mechanism requiring everyone in a position to control the content of an educational activity (e.g., directors, planning committee members, contributors, peer reviewers) to disclose any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests (drug/device companies) and manage/resolve any conflicts of interest prior to the activity. Individuals must disclose to participants the existence or non-existence of financial relationships: 1) at the time of the activity or within 12 months prior; and 2) of their spouses/partners.

Baylor College of Medicine does not view the existence of interests or relationships with commercial entities as implying bias or decreasing the value of a presentation. It is up to the participants to determine whether the interests or relationships influence the presenter with regard to exposition or conclusions.

If at any time during this activity you feel that there has been commercial or promotional bias, please inform us by using the commercial bias comments box in the evaluation form. Please answer the questions about balance in the CME activity evaluation candidly.


The following individual(s) has/have reported financial or other relationship(s) with commercial entities whose products/services may relate to the educational content of this activity:


  1. Eva Amenta, M.D. Placeholder Image

    Eva Amenta, M.D.

    Internal Medicine Resident
    Baylor College of Medicine


    Nothing to disclose.

  2. Uma Ayyala, M.D.

    Uma Ayyala, M.D.

    Assistant Professor
    Baylor College of Medicine


    Nothing to disclose.

  3. Varshana Gurusamy, M.D. Placeholder Image

    Varshana Gurusamy, M.D.

    Radiology Resident
    Baylor College of Medicine


    Nothing to disclose.

  4. Stephanie Holdener, M.D. Placeholder Image

    Stephanie Holdener, M.D.

    Pathology Resident
    Baylor College of Medicine


    Nothing to disclose.

  5. Alyssa Mohammed, M.D. Placeholder Image

    Alyssa Mohammed, M.D.

    Internal Medicine Resident
    Baylor College of Medicine


    Nothing to disclose.